Odcinek nr 1. Gramatyka.
Informacje zaczerpnęłam z informatora CKE. Możesz przeczytać go w całości tutaj.
Poniżej znajdziesz zagadnienia gramatyczne na maturę rozszerzoną:
- Bezokolicznik i formy osobowe, np. to sleep, sleeps.
- Czasowniki posiłkowe, np. be, do, have.
- Czasowniki modalne i półmodalne:
– can, np. I can draw very well. You can go without me if you want. Can you help me with the luggage, please? I can’t hear you. Whoever you saw, it can’t have been John.
– could, np. I could read when I was six. I’m sorry but I couldn’t help you yesterday. Could you sing this song for us, please? You could have taken a taxi from the airport
– may, np. May I sit here? My mother may still be at work. You may stay longer if you want. You may not have heard about this place but it’s amazing.
– might, np. They might be a little late. Don’t touch it, you might break it. At 5 p.m. John might have been taking a driving test.
– must; have to, np. It must be cold outside. I must do this exercise for tomorrow. You mustn’t smoke in here. We have to make the beds every morning. You didn’t have to help them. You must be kidding. He must have done it, there was nobody else there.
– will, np. I will study harder this year. Will you do something for me, please? I promise I won’t do that again.
– shall, np. Shall we go to the seaside this weekend? Shall I help you? What shall we do? The management shall not be responsible for damage to personal property.
– would, np. It would be a good idea. Would you like some tea? I wouldn’t like to be in his place. When at my grandmother’s, I would always have toast with peanut butter for breakfast.
– should; ought to, np. We should finish the project this week. I ought to be home by 10 p.m. You shouldn’t play with matches. . You ought to have washed the glasses before serving the drinks.
– need; need to, np. You needn’t worry about it. You don’t need to go there. You needn’t have come, I’m going to deal with it myself.
– used to, np. We used to go to the seaside every weekend when I was a child.
- Konstrukcje czasownikowe:
– going to, np. It’s going to rain. What are you going to do about it?
– be able to, np. Will you be able to do it tomorrow? I regret not being able to help them.
– would like to, np. What would you like to order?
- Czasowniki regularne i nieregularne, listen-listened-listened; go-went-gone.
- Imiesłów czynny i bierny, np. writing, written
- Czasowniki złożone (phrasal verbs), np. What are you looking for? Turn the radio down, please. My friend came up with a great idea. It took me an hour to figure out how to do the task. My boss looks down on everybody.
- Czasy gramatyczne:
– Present Simple, np. I am from Sweden. The shop is closed on Sundays. I do the shopping here every morning. Their plane lands at 7 p.m. The sun sets in the west. I have a new car. I will call you when the meeting starts.
– Present Continuous, np. I’m writing an important email. We’re staying in the Rocamar Hotel. I’m getting tired. My parents are leaving on holiday tomorrow. I’m having lunch at the moment. Why are you always packing at the last moment? While you’re getting ready, I will look for an umbrella.
– Present Perfect, np. We have just had dinner. I have been here since Monday.It’s the first time I have tried a passion fruit. The show has already finished. The show has already finished. I will serve dinner as soon as you have set the table.
– Present Perfect Continuous, np. We have been waiting here for ages! How long have you been living in this area? Have you been crying? I’ve been attending these classes every Tuesday since May.
– Past Simple, np. We were a little worried about you. I bought this car yesterday. When she was younger, she was really shy. We went for a walk and then we had dinner in a restaurant.
– Past Continuous, np. Yesterday at 5 p.m.I was swimming in the ocean. When we arrived, most of the guests were dancing. I wasn’t expecting you today! I was wondering if you could help me with this suitcase.
– Past Perfect, np. The train had left before we reached the station. I felt I had been there before. By 1492 Columbus had made many sea voyages. It was the first time the neighbours had seen my new flat.
– Past Perfect Continuous, np. I couldn’t believe they had been living here for so many years.
– Future Simple, np. We will go on a trip next weekend. I hope it won’t rain tomorrow. I will take this bag, it’s great! When will I see you again? Will you help me? We will get up when we want
– Future Continuous, np. I’ll be working at five.
– Future Perfect, np. I hope they will have arrived by the evening. By the time I retire, I hope I will have done many exciting things.
– Future Perfect Continuous, np. In September I will have been working here for 20 years.
- Tryb łączący, np. I suggest that you bring your own towel. I insist that you help me with this project.
- Nazwy rzeczy policzalnych, np. a car, an answer i niepoliczalnych, np. money, flour
- Liczba mnoga rzeczowników, np. a skirt – skirts, a child – children, a wife – wives, a baby – babies, a box – boxes a sheep –sheep, a foot – feet, a passer-by – passersby, an add-on – add-ons.
- Rzeczowniki występujące tylko w formie pojedynczej, np. news, advice lub mnogiej, np. trousers, glasses.
- Sposoby wyrażania posiadania i przynależności, np. the daughter’s wedding, the size of the room.
- Rodzaj, np. an actor – an actress; a nephew – a niece, a fox – a vixen.
- Rzeczowniki złożone, np. toothpaste, a mother-in-law, a dance school.
- Przedimek nieokreślony, np. a house /an umbrella, a yellow box, a bar of chocolate; I have a small garden.
- Przedimek określony, np. the house of my dreams, the United States, the Himalayas, the table on the right, the most beautiful girl, play the guitar; I have a small garden. In the garden there are different flowers.
- Przedimek zerowy, np. lunch, furniture, Mount Everest; Dogs and cats are our favourite pets.
- Stopniowanie regularne i nieregularne, np. tall – taller – the tallest, elegant – more elegant – the most elegant, good – better – the best, little – less – the least.
- Użycie przymiotników z so i such np. She’s so beautiful. They are such nice people.
- Przymiotniki dzierżawcze, np. my, your.
- Przymiotniki po czasownikach postrzegania, np. It smells great.
- Przymiotniki używane w funkcji rzeczownika, np. the rich.
- Stopniowanie regularne i nieregularne, np. early – earlier – the earliest, much – more – the most
- Użycie przysłówków:
– o dwóch znaczeniowo różnych formach,
- He works too hard. He hardly sleeps. We arrived too late. She has put on weight lately.
– too, np. You’re driving too fast.
– enough, np. He’s not old enough to go abroad alone.
- Miejsce przysłówka w zdaniu, np. You are always hungry! She never does the shopping on Sunday. I have never seen the Himalayas. Do it very carefully. My father works very hard. Little did he know what was going to happen.
- Zaimki osobowe, np. I, you.
- Zaimki dzierżawcze, np. mine, yours.
- Zaimki zwrotne i emfatyczne, np. yourself, themselves.
- Zaimki wskazujące, np. this, these.
- Zaimki pytające, np. what, how, why.
- Zaimki względne, np. who, which, that.
- Zaimki wzajemne, np. each other, one another.
- Zaimki nieokreślone, np.
– some, any, no, every i złożenia z nimi
– none, either, neither
– many, much, few, a few, little, a little
– another, other, others, the other, the others
– every, each
– both, all
– either – or, neither – nor.
- Zaimki bezosobowe: you, one.
Liczebniki główne i porządkowe, ułamkowe i dziesiętne.
- Przyimki z określeniami miejsca, czasu, kierunku, odległości, przyczyny, sposobu,
- in London, at 7 p.m., on Sunday, in July, on Saturday evening, by bus, with a pen, to get a reward.
- Przyimki po rzeczownikach, czasownikach i przymiotnikach, np. interest in, famous for, think of, objection to, compatible with, refer to.
Spójniki, np. and, or, but, if, unless, that, till, until, when, where, while, after, before, as soon as, because, although, however, so, in spite of, despite, yet, on condition that, supposing, providing/provided that, so as, even though, whereas, as if, as though, in case
- Zdania oznajmujące:
- twierdzące, np. I’m seventeen years old. There’s too little time. I have been here before. I’m going to learn Japanese.
- przeczące, np. I don’t know the answer to this question. I haven’t seen you for ages. There is no food in the fridge. I can’t do anything about it. Neither/None of my friends can drive a car.
- Zdania pytające, np. How old are you? Where are you going? Who is this cake for? How long does it take to get to the airport? When did the match start? Do you have to do any housework today? What is your room like? What happened? Who made you go there?
- Zdania rozkazujące, np. Put the kettle on. Don’t tell me what to do. Let’s go there together.
- Zdania wykrzyknikowe, np. How nice of you! What wonderful scenery!
- Zdania z podmiotem it, np. It’s half past two. It’s getting cloudy. It’s really great here. It makes me happy. It was only last week that he was awarded that prize. It’s worth having a look inside the building. It’s no use trying to convince him.
- Zdania z podmiotem there, np. There are too many people in this room. There weren’t any clouds in the sky when we left. There will be over a thousand people at the concert. There are bound to be problems.
- Zdania z dwoma dopełnieniami, np. My boyfriend brought me wonderful flowers.
- Strona bierna, np. It is made of wood. The building was destroyed by the storm. The parcel has just been delivered. The meal will be served in a moment. It must be finished today. His every step is being watched. He is/was believed to have robbed a bank. I was made to give a speech. The curtains must have been made of special fabric. She likes being admired. The meeting had to be cancelled.
- Pytania typu question tags, np. He’s English, isn’t he? Give me the book, will you? i dopowiedzenia, np. So do I. Nor/Neither do I.
- Pytania pośrednie, np. Can you tell me what time it is? Could you tell me where I should turn? I don’t know where everybody is
- Mowa zależna, np. My mum said she was tired. The teacher told me to answer the question. The neighbour asked me not to play music too loudly. A doctor wanted to know what was wrong. I wanted to know when the bus would come. I asked mum how many cakes she had bought for the party. The policeman denied having heard about the burglary. The security guard accused me of shoplifting. The man objected to having the meeting interrupted.
- Zdania współrzędnie złożone, np. I called my friend and asked him to help me. He came to the meeting but refused to accept our offer
- Zdania podrzędnie złożone:
– podmiotowe, np. What I know about it is confidential.
– orzecznikowe, np. The problem is that we need help.
– orzecznikowe, np. The problem is that we need help.
– dopełnieniowe, np. He promised that he would come soon. He’d like everyone to enjoy the party. All I did was (to) send him an apology.
– przydawkowe np. The train that we wanted to take was delayed. My aunt, who has been helping our family for years, is a rich duchess. He came late, which surprised all of us
– celu, np. I phoned him (in order) to tell him the news. I did it so as to save him time. The Government passed that law in order that / so (that) this kind of antisocial behaviour could be punished.
– czasu, np. Say your name when they ask you
– miejsca, np. They found themselves where they had never been before
– porównawcze, np. Sylvia’s garden isn’t so big as Margaret’s (is). I respect him more than words can say. Jake has as much courage as his older brother (has). The older I get, the happier I am. She speaks several languages, as do her parents.
– przyczyny, np. I lent him the book because he asked me to. As it was quite late, we went straight home
– przyzwolenia, np. Although he was big and strong, he didn’t want to fight.
– skutku, np. I worked till late so I was tired.
– sposobu, np. Do as I tell you.
– stopnia, np. So much was he engaged in his work that he didn’t hear anyone
- Zdania warunkowe (typu 0, I, II, III oraz mieszane), np. If you enter the room, an alarm goes off. If it rains tomorrow,we will stay at home. If he changed hisways, he’d have more friends. If I had known about your victory, I would have called to congratulate you. If he knew English, he’d have represented Poland at last month’s conference in Great Britain. If he had gone to bed earlier yesterday, he wouldn’t be so tired now.
- Zdania wyrażające życzenie, preferencje lub przypuszczenie, np.
– wish, np. I wish you were here. I wish they would cancel the meeting. I wish we had left earlier.
– it’s time, np. It’s (high) time he found a job.
– had better, np. You’d better (not) come tomorrow.
– would rather, np. I would rather (not) go there. They would rather you didn’t smoke here.
– if only, np. If only we could drive faster! If only I had listened to you.
– as if / as though, np. She felt as if / as though all of her worries had gone.
– suppose/supposing, np. Suppose you had a choice, what option would you go for?
- Konstrukcje a) bezokolicznikowe, np. I promise to write every day. It’s difficult for me to decide. I want you to do it. I’m glad to see you. I have many letters to write. I’d prefer to fly rather than travel by bus. Will you let me go there? Don’t make me laugh. When am I supposed to return the books? It was surprising to hear his name mentioned. They were about to leave when I arrived. I saw him do a trick.
b) oraz gerundialne, np. I enjoy swimming and sunbathing. I couldn’t help reading your message. I was excited about getting birthday presents. I prefer skiing to snowboarding. I couldn’t remember writing the letter. I heard him singing. I’m not used to getting up so early. There’s no hope of their winning the match.
- Konstrukcja have/get something done, np. He had his room painted yesterday. I must get it done tomorrow. I will have Mike cook dinner next time we meet.
- Inwersja stylistyczna i inne formy emfatyczne, np. Rarely do I see so much enthusiasm in her eyes. It was John who told me about it. Had I known about your accident, I wouldn’t have bothered you. You do look nice today. I did tell you.
Informacje zaczerpnęłam z informatora CKE. Możesz przeczytać go w całości tutaj.